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Homepage Archive #3


Anatech August 2012


Public Safety Broadband: Another Job for Cavity Bandpass Filters - RF CafeThe drive to create a nationwide 700 MHz public safety broadband network finally appears to have some teeth thanks to its inclusion in the Middle Class Tax Relief and Job Creation Act of 2012. The law reallocates 10 MHz of spectrum in the infamous "D-block" to public safety, which along with an existing 10 MHz of spectrum currently held by the Public Safety Spectrum Trust (PSST) will create 20 MHz of spectrum dedicated exclusively to public safety data communications.

Pasternack Introduces New

Line of Low PIM Connectors

Pasternack Introduces New Line of Low PIM Connectors - RF Cafe Pasternack Enterprises' high performance low PIM connectors are designed to fit on most commercially available 1/2” corrugated copper and aluminum cables. Low PIM connectors are available in 7/16 DIN and Type N series with both male and female interfaces. Pasternack's custom length assemblies using these new low PIM connectors are made to order and ship the same day.

The KISS Principle at Work

The KISS Principle at Work - RF Cafe ForumsThis story was sent to me via e-mail. I haven't checked the veracity of it, but even if it's fictitious, it's still funny and makes a good case for the KISS (Keep It Simple, Stupid) principle.

Amplifier Solutions

Thanks for the Support!

Amplifiers for the commercial & military markets from DC to 4 GHz. Hybrid construction techniques, utilizing chip and packaged semiconductors, on thick alumina substrates or PCB materials.

Patent Trolls on Trial?

Patent Troll on Trial? - RF CafeTrial lawyer Maggie Tamburro, of IMS ExpertServices, weighs in on the infamous "patent troll," a genre of business practice that reportedly costs the U.S. economy up to $29B per year. To address the problem, Congress recently introduced a bill titled the "Saving High-Tech Innovators from Egregious Legal Disputes." Ms. Tamburro argues that the practice is looked upon favorably when it is a large tech company essentially acting in a manner similar to companies whose raison d'être is solely the exploit the protected work of others. What think ye?

Webinar: Innovative

Measurements for Insights

Innovative Measurements for Greater Insights - RF CafeInnovative Measurements for Greater Insights by Agilent, Wednesday, August 22, 1:00 PM ET

Many Thanks for Support

by Fairview Microwave

"Value added" distributor of RF, microwave, wireless & fiber optic passive coaxial components - compliance screening available. RF cables & connectors, crimp tools, calibration kits, torque wrenches.

Notable Quote

"Humans act less precisely. The certainty of an absolutely correct outcome can be lower than with computers. But because humans care about the outcome, they tend to make decisions optimized for survival." - Ken Bowersox - Notable Quote - RF Cafe"Humans act less precisely. The certainty of an absolutely correct outcome can be lower than with computers. But because humans care about the outcome, they tend to make decisions optimized for survival." - Ken Bowersox, former Shuttle astronaut, commenting on whether the U.S. space program should migrate to total robotics rather than manned missions. September 2012 Air & Space

2016 Beloit College

Mindset List

2016 Beloit College Mindset List - RF CafeEach August beginning in 1998, Beloit College has released the "Beloit College Mindset List," which notes how changes in technology, cultural standards, and world events has altered the attitudes and expectations of the current crop of college freshmen. Just as the 1998 List addressed the graduating class of 2002, this year's list focuses on the college graduating class of 2016. What began as an admonition to the faculty regarding how the world their students have lived in is radically different from the one they experienced is now a much-anticipated form of entertainment. Tenured professors might know the source of common terms like...

RFMD® Commences LTE

Shipments to Samsung

RFMD® Commences LTE Shipments to Samsung - RF CafeRFMD expects to supply the majority of the 3G and 4G power amplifiers in Samsung's highest volume smartphones this calendar year. RFMD already supports multiple feature phones, smartphones and tablets for Samsung with a broad range of products, including PowerSmart® power platforms, ultra-high efficiency power amplifiers, and other critical high-performance components.

Thanks to Triad RF Systems

for Their Support!

Tower-mounted amplifiers, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV, aka drone) systems, and many standard (30 - 6,500 MHz, up to 200 W) and custom-designed amplifier subsystems to your specifications. A small, private company run by serial entrepreneurs.

Sherlock Ohms: Satellite

Station Motors Burning Up

Sherlock Ohms: The Satellite Motors Were Burning Up - RF CafeSherlock Ohms is a regular feature of Design News that features submissions from readers about troubleshooting challenges and how they were solved. This one is titled "The Satellite Station Motors Were Burning Up."

Dust Particles Reflecting RF

in the Atmosphere

ARRL: Dust Particles Reflecting RF in the Atmosphere - RF CafeARRL contributing editor Stan Horzepa (WA1LOU) posted an interesting article on the radio propagation mode known as "dust scatter." He conducted an experiment to determine whether he could detect a “passive” meteor back-scatter from the recent (August 12) Perseid meteor shower.

Free Engineering

Magazine Subscriptions

Free Broadcast Engineering MAgazine Subscription - RF CafeMost of professional technical magazines offer free subscriptions to qualified peoples (often that just means you still have a pulse). Advertisers pay according to circulation, so higher subscription numbers mean higher sales prices for them. A few of the most useful for us are GPS World, Wireless Week, Electronic Products, and Photonics Spectra. There are a couple hundred magazines and white papers to choose from.

Wireless Engineering Theme

Crossword for 8/19/2012

For the sake of avid cruciverbalists, each week I create a new crossword puzzle that has a theme related to engineering, mathematics, chemistry, physics, and other technical words. You will never be asked the name of a movie star unless he/she was involved in a technical endeavor (e.g., Lamar).

Vacuum Tube Quiz

Vacuum Tube Quiz, February 1961 Popular Electronics - RF CafeThere are still a lot of vacuum tube guys out there who might remember enough about them to score well on this quiz that appeared in the February 1961 edition of Popular Electronics. My own exposure was mainly with airport surveillance and precision approach radars while in the USAF. We didn't have a lot of the fancy special purpose tubes shown here, but I was able to guess correctly on some of them based on how the tube is constructed and the response curves. Still, I'm embarrassed to tell you my overall score.

Please Thank KR Electronics

for Supporting RF Cafe

Filters for commercial and military markets. Custom & standard filters -bandpass, highpass, lowpass, notch, anti-aliasing, linear phase, fast response, phase matched, absorptive, root & full cosine.

Microwave Journal Articles

Wireless Sensor Network Challenges and Solutions

by L. Doherty, J. Simon and T. Watteyne

Antennas, the mmWave Advantage, by Christer Stoij

Tackling Satellite Interference

by Martin Coleman

Thanks to MECA Electronics

for Long-Time Support

RF/Microwave components including fixed attenuators, directional & hybrid couplers, isolators/circulators, power divider/combiners, RF Loads, DC blocks, bias Tees and adapters & cables. All RF realms served.

AWR Design Forum 2012

Off to a Successful Start

AWR Design Forum 2012 off to a Successful Start - RF CafeADF is an open event at which designers of microwave and RF circuits and systems such as MMIC, RF PCB and LTE communication systems can network and share useful information and resources pertinent to high-frequency design, discuss AWR products and technologies, and collaborate on industry issues and trends.

Morse Code

Impressed on Mars

Morse Code Impressed on Mars - RF CafeA portion of the tread pattern on the wheels of NASA/JPL's Curiosity Mars rover consists of a series square and rectangular holes that according to the Chuck Norris-looking guy on the embedded video (below) serve as "visual odometry marks." They are arranged in an asymmetric pattern on the rover that will leave an imprint on the surface of Mars so the onboard cameras can look at them to determine whether the craft is actually traversing the distance it is being commanded to move. Less distance between sets of marks are an indication that slippage is occurring. If that happens and Curiosity cannot correct itself, it will stop and make a call back home to JPL and await further instructions. The round-trip call can take anywhere from about 6 minutes to more than 44 minutes, not including the time needed to formulate a reply. Look more closely at the "visual odometry marks", however, and you will notice those holes are squares and rectangles that make up dots and dashes, respectively...

Please Visit Fotofab in

Appreciation of Their Support

Supplier of custom-made thin metal parts. Chemical etching, metal stamping, RF shielding, or any custom part made out of metal. RF/EMI shielding, metal stamping, lead frames, filter screens. Samples available.

Khan Academy: "Learn

Almost Anything for Free"

Khan Academy - "Learn almost anything for free" - RF Cafe"Learn almost anything for free." That is the tag line of the Khan Academy. While the claim is a bit of a stretch, especially when you need to delve below surface level, they do have over 3,300 videos on everything from math to physics, finance, and history. According to their website, in August 2004, Sal Khan began remotely tutoring his cousin, Nadia, who was struggling with unit conversion. Soon, Sal also began tutoring her brothers as well. He became so popular that he started recording videos and posting them on YouTube. More and more people kept watching, and Sal has continued to make videos ever since. Khan eventually drew the attention of Google ($2 million grant) and Bill Gates ($1.5 million grant). The rest, as the saying goes, is history. RF Cafe visitors might be particularly interested in subjects like circuit analysis (4 lessons), capacitance, magnetism (12 lessons), electric motors, electrostatics, Doppler, optics, and fields. You might also like watching the video lessons on momentum and...

Anatech Electronics

Intros 3 New Cavity Filters

The AB743B951 has a center frequency of 743 MHz and a bandwidth of 6 MHz - RF CafeThe AB743B951 has a center frequency of 743 MHz and a bandwidth of 6 MHz. The AB2370B867 has a center frequency of 2370 MHz and 1-dB bandwidth of 40 MHz. The AB913B488 water-resistant cavity bandpass filter has a center frequency of 913 MHz, bandwidth of 20 MHz.

Notable Quote

"[People] are not managing their tools; their tools are managing them. Tools now make the rules, and we struggle to keep up." - William H. Davidow Notable Quote - RF Cafe"[People] are not managing their tools; their tools are managing them. Tools now make the rules, and we struggle to keep up." - William H. Davidow in the August 2012 Spectrum (IEEE), re accelerated pace at which sophisticated technology is being introduced into society.

Bench Technician Job

RF Cafe Employment ForumAtlanta Communications Company is seeking a mature, experienced person with a dynamic personality and a strong electronics background as a Bench Technician. The ideal candidate will be FCC licensed, ETA certified, have experience with Motorola XTS, MotoTrbo professional and commercial series radios...

Webinar: Measurement

Challenges for SATCOM

Measurement Challenges and Techniques for SATCOM Webinar - RF CafeMeasurement Challenges and Techniques for SATCOM by Agilent, Thursday, August 16, 2:00 pm EDT

RFMD Intros 2.7V to 4.4V, 915 MHz Tx/Rx Module

RFMD® Intros 2.7V to 4.4V, 915 MHz Transmit/Receive Module - RF CafeDesigned for 868 MHz and 902 to 928 MHz AMR solutions, RFMD's new RF6549 features separate ports for Rx and Tx paths, and two ports on the output for connecting a diversity solution or a test port. PA section includes nominal Pout of 28 dBm.

Thanks to Oscilent for Support

Oscilent Corporation is a manufacturer of frequency control products offering design and production expertise in SAW Filters, quartz crystals, crystal oscillators, crystal filters, and ceramic resonators.

The Foundations of Mobile

and Cellular Telephony

The Foundations of Mobile and Cellular Telephony - RF CafeOn 17 June 1946, a driver in St. Louis pulled out a handset from under his car's dashboard, placed a phone call and made history. It was the first mobile telephone call, placed on a system inaugurated by Southwestern Bell, one of AT&T's local operating companies... (IEEE)

IEEE Job Resources

IEEE - USA How to Write Efficient Executive Summaries

Hidden Job Market Secrets: What You Need to Know to Find a New Position in Today's Job Market

"The Art of Failure Analysis"

"The Art of Failure Analysis" 2012, People on the Beach - RF CafeFor the last few years, IEEE's International Symposium on the Physical and Failure Analysis of Integrated Circuits has held an "Art of Failure Analysis" photo contest. Familiar shapes and patterns occur regularly in nature at the macro level that can be seen and recognized by almost anyone; e.g., the Nautilus spiral, the Fibonacci series in plant life, and fractal structures. It takes a high power optical microscope or even a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to see those familiar sights in the realm of the very small. Sometimes, though, the images are downright bazaar and look eerily familiar. This first-place winner from the 2012 "Art of Failure Analysis" is a good example. Titled, "People on the Beach," this first-prize-winning SEM image by Infineon's Lim Saw Sing...

High Voltage CMOS Driver

for PIN Diodes by M/A-COM

M/A-COM Technology Solutions Announces New High Voltage CMOS Driver for PIN Diodes - RF CafeM/A-COM Technology Solutions has introduced a new High Voltage CMOS Driver for PIN diodes for use in military and commercial radio applications. The MADR-010574 is designed to work with M/A-COM Tech's high power and high voltage PIN diodes. This driver supports series-shunt and all-series diode designs by biasing four diodes simultaneously.

Transistor Topics:

Semis Other Than Transistors

Transistor Topics: Semiconductors Other Than Transistors, March 1958 Popular Electronics - RF CafeIn March of 1958 when this article appeared in Popular Electronics, learning of semiconductor devices other than transistors was usually new to experienced professionals as well as to hobbyists. Vacuum tubes still dominated electronic products in the day. Companies like General Electric, Sylvania, and RCA were the pioneers for development of Zener diodes, photodiodes, SCRs, thyristors, etc. Exotic compounds like selenium, germanium, silicon, and lead and cadmium sulphides...

Among the Novice Hams:


Among the Novice Hams - Inductors, March 1958 Popular Electronics - RF CafePliers of the amateur radio hobby have since the beginning put forth a lot of effort training fledgling entrants in the realm of electronics and communications. Up until the latter part of the last century, there were a number of magazines - Popular Electronics among them - that would regularly print articles covering the basics of electronics. Other than the ARRL's QST magazine, it seems maybe Nuts and Volts is the only monthly still in print that you can go to for such information. I suppose it was inevitable with the emergence and now domination of the Internet as a source for most knowledge. The Among the Novice Hams column in Popular Electronics often included short primers on subjects like the basics of capacitors and inductors...

Multiple Engineering

Positions Now Open

Empower RF Systems has announced positions available for the following areas:

RF Engineer, Senior CAD Designer, Associate RF Engineer, L- and S-Band Pulse/Radar RF Engineer

RFMW Intros Radiall

75 Ω BNC HD Connectors

RFMW Intros Radiall BNC HD Connectors - True 75 Ω HDTV Connector Series - RF CafeRFMW announces design and sales support for Radiall's new BNC HD Connector. The advanced design is available in a wide variety of colors, and its unique easy grip boot allows for high density integration without the use of a tool, making this high-definition BNC the best choice for all broadcast applications.

Many Thanks to Anatech!

Anatech Electronics has been a long-time supporter of RF Cafe. They specialize in RF & Microwave products specifically built for military, commercial and wireless communications.

RFMD Intros 6-Bit Serial

Digital Step Attenuators

RFMD® Intros 6-Bit Serial-Controlled Digital Step Attenuators - RF CafeRFMD's new RFSA2644 / RFSA2654 6-bit digital step attenuators (DSAs) feature high linearity over their entire 31.5 dB gain control range with excellent step accuracy in 0.5dB steps. They are programmed via a serial mode control interface.

Parting is Such Sweet Revenge

Parting is Such Sweet Revenge - RF CafeThe 21st century has brought with it new ways to leave your job. The exit strategies of the recently unemployed have taken a new tack: social media is proving to be an outlet for those who decide that they don't want to go quietly.

Sherlock Ohms

Sherlock Ohms, Blowing Fuses & Exploding Circuit Panels - RF CafeSherlock Ohms is a regular feature of Design News that features submissions from readers about troubleshooting challenges and how they were solved. This one is titled "Blowing Fuses & Exploding Circuit Panels."

Analog Devices' 8- and 16-

Channel Multiplexers

Analog Devices’ Multiplexers Offer High Robustness, Low Charge Injection and Low Leakage - RF CafeAnalog Devices introduced two multiplexers, ADG5206 and ADG5207 that are able to guarantee latch-up prevention in high-voltage industrial applications operating up to ±22 V.

Thanks to ACS for

Continued Support!

ACS designs, develops and sells Electronic Design Automation (EDA) software tools for RF and microwave engineering applications. ACS's main product is the LINC2 linear circuit simulator.

µP-Controlled Router Base

µP-Controlled Router Base - RF CafeEngineering students at MIT have developed a hand-held computerized router that can precisely cut out or rout practically any shape on any size wood (or plastic, foam, whatever) based on a digital map of the pattern and the work surface. Strips of encoded tape are positioned on the material and then the router follows the tape. Notice while watching the video that the router moves around on the base unit. The operator's job is to keep the router near the center of the base so it doesn't move against a hard stop at the edge of the base. This type of function is traditionally performed with an X-Y plotter type system that automatically moves the bit across the work piece; they can cost tens or hundreds of thousands of dollars, depending on the size. Depending on your patience and skill, an entire 4x8-foot sheet of plywood could be handled if desired. I'm guessing this device, once productized and made in China, will sell low end in Sears for about $150.

PMI Intros Analog Phase

Shifter for 9 to 11 GHz

PMI Intros Analog Phase Shifter for 9 to 11 GHz - RF CafeModel Number PS-9G11G-3609-A-SFF is an analog controlled phase shifter that operates over the 9.0 to 11.0 GHz frequency range. This model utilizes a phase shift control voltage ranging from ±7.5 V for phase shift of 0-360°

AWR IMS2012 MicroApps

Videos Now on AWR.TV

AWR Corporation has added nine videos of its MicroApps presentations from the International Microwave Symposium (IMS) 2012 to its AWR.TV portal.  Tune into the IMS channel to view the following AWR MicroApps presentations

August T&M World Articles

Test Method Improves PWB Reliability, by Paul Reid

A T&M View of the Higgs Boson Discovery: Pt 3, What They Actually Measure, by Ransom Stephens

August RFTI Articles

Low-EMI Printed Circuit Board Design for High Frequency Waveforms (p.10), by Earl McCune and David Wyskiel

Antenna Current Distribution: the Basis for Modeling and Simulation (p.22), Gary Breed

The Mirror Technique for Reducing Radiated EMI (p.24), by Arturo Mediano

*---- Notice ----*

I will be away from my computer until Friday afternoon (August 10). I apologize in advance for any delays in responding.

RF Cafe Quiz #45

This quiz is based on the information presented in Handbook of Dielectric and Thermal Properties of Materials at Microwave Frequencies, by Theodore Anderson. This book is a wealth of information of dielectric characteristics of biological tissues in plants, animals, as well as for ceramics, soils and minerals. Particular attention is paid to properties in the ISM frequency bands. Extensive sources for similar studies are provided.

Engineering & Science News

for August 9, 2012

FCC Asked to Raise Limit on Cell Phone Radiation

Samsung Probes Allegation of Supplier's Underage Workers

Deutsche Telekom Profits Jump 74% as Costs Fall

16-Year-Old New York Boy is the Fastest Texter in America

Semico Cuts 2012 Chip Market Growth Forecast

First Logic Gate Made from Undoped Silicon Nanowires

Seeing the Light with NIST's New Noiseless Optical Amplifier

Prepay Now Main Driver of U.S. Smartphone Sales

U.S. Wholesale Stockpiles Fell as Sales Plummeted

GreenPeak to Lead the

Smart Home Evolution

GreenPeak to Lead the Smart Home Evolution - RF CafeGreenPeak Technologies, a leading Smart Home RF communications semiconductor company, has announced it is expanding its product portfolio and customer target base. GreenPeak ZigBee chips are already integrated into leading cable industry set-top boxes to enable power saving and long range RF based connections for remote controls. Rolling out new radio chips that support the full range of ZigBee networking technologies including ZigBee Pro, ZigBee IP, RF4CE and ZigBee Green Power.

RF Cafe July Book

Giveaway Winner!

The Parameter Space Investigation Method Toolkit - RF Cafe Book GiveawayWarren G., of Stafford, VA, is the July 2012 winner of RF Cafe's monthly book drawing. Warren selected The Parameter Space Investigation Method Toolkit, Graciously provided by Artech House

Forum Request: Guidance Needed for My Future

RF Cafe Employment ForumA recent visitor to the RF Cafe Employment Forum posted a request for assistance: "I'm currently doing my Master's in Wireless Communications at the University of Southampton. I will be graduating by the end of September 2012.I was sure of getting a job in the UK after my course gets over. But due to the VISA regulations in the UK, am afraid that I wont be able to get a job. So, kindly help me out by giving your suggestions for the following..."

Richardson RFPD Intros Two

New Converters from ADI

Richardson RFPD Introduces Two New Converters from ADI - RF CafeThe AD5686RBCPZ-RL7, a member of ADI's nanoDAC+® family, is a low power, quad, 16-bit buffered voltage output DAC. It includes a 2.5 V, 2 ppm/°C internal reference (enabled by default) and a gain select pin giving a full-scale output of 2.5 V (gain = 1) or 5 V (gain = 2). The AD7988-5BRMZRL7 is a 16-bit, successive approximation, analog-to-digital converters (ADC) that operates from a single power supply, VDD. The device offers 500kSPS throughput and is a low power, 16-bit sampling ADC with a versatile serial interface port.

Re-Designating An

Expert Witness

To Testify or Not to Testify: Re-Designating An Expert Witness? - RF CafeExpert witnesses play a big role in most - if not all - of the court cases that get reported here. IMS ExpertServices is a law firm specializing in expert witnesses. Every month or so they send me an article about specific court cases that could be of interest to RF Cafe visitors. This particular installment is titled, "To Testify or Not to Testify: Re-Designating An Expert Witness?," and deals with a rather ironic turn of events in a medical case, but the outcome could affect even patent and copyright infringement cases, particularly given the reported low incidence of precedence in these matters.

Job Hunting Tips from the IEEE

IEEE - Job Site

The Secret to Articulating Your Value

Why You Didn't Get the Interview

Economic Strains Are Having Little Impact On Tech Job Opportunities In The Asia-Pacific

M/A-COM GaN HEMT Pulsed Power Transistor

M/A-COM Technology Solutions Announces New GaN HEMT Pulsed Power Transistor - RF CafeM/A-COM Technology Solutions Announces New GaN HEMT Pulsed Power Transistor. The MAGX-002735-040L00 is a gold metalized, internally matched, GaN on SiC, RF power transistor that exhibits excellent performance when operated at +50 V, class AB operation, 40 W peak output, using a 300 µs pulse and 10% duty cycle pulsed signal. Leveraging state of the art wafer fabrication processes, the transistor provides high gain, efficiency, bandwidth, and ruggedness over a wide bandwidth for today's demanding needs.

Measurement Challenges of 160 MHz 802.11ac MIMO

Webinar: Addressing Measurement Challenges of 160 MHz 802.11ac MIMOWebinar: Addressing Measurement Challenges of 160 MHz 802.11ac MIMO, by Agilent, Thursday, August 9, 1:00 PM EDT. With the latest incarnation of Wi-Fi, or 802.11ac, designers are leveraging signal frequencies, modulation bandwidths, spatial demultiplexing and modulation schemes to meet the throughput needs of 802.11ac. This has posed several challenges for test equipment vendors as they try to meet the stringent demands of 160 MHz bandwidths, MIMO streams, 256 QAM all at frequencies of 5.8 GHz.

Hittite's MMIC LNA Covers

0.3-3 GHz, Only 4.5 sq.mm

Hittite's Compact New MMIC LNA Covers 0.3 to 3 GHz and Occupies Only 4.5 mm2 - RF CafeThe HMC374SC70E is a high dynamic range pHEMT MMIC LNA which delivers 1.6 dB noise figure, +34 dBm output IP3 and 14 dB small signal gain at 900 MHz. With saturated output power up to +19 dBm and output IP3 to +36 dBm, the HMC374SC70E is also ideal for driving the LO port of high linearity mixers and for transmitter pre-driver applications.

Engineering & Science News

for August 8, 2012

LTE Revenues Expected to Grow 8x by 2016

National NFC Service to Go Live in Singapore This Month

Explore the Upper Reaches of the Amateur Radio Spectrum

   in the ARRL 10 GHz and Up Contest

Apple Patent Trial: Samsung Scrutinized iPhone to Improve

   Galaxy UI (will this set precedent for teardowns & reverse engineering efforts?)

India Can Monitor BlackBerry Without Codes

Our Edisons are Alive and Well at NIWeek 2012

Nuclear Generator Powers Curiosity Mars Mission (no solar


Discordant Bits and Single Photons Boost Quantum Power

Gov't Motors (GM) Outsources $559M Advertising Deal

   (imagine Dinah Shore singing "See the UK in your Chevrolet")

About RF Cafe

Kirt Blattenberger - RF Cafe Webmaster

Copyright: 1996 - 2024


    Kirt Blattenberger,


RF Cafe began life in 1996 as "RF Tools" in an AOL screen name web space totaling 2 MB. Its primary purpose was to provide me with ready access to commonly needed formulas and reference material while performing my work as an RF system and circuit design engineer. The World Wide Web (Internet) was largely an unknown entity at the time and bandwidth was a scarce commodity. Dial-up modems blazed along at 14.4 kbps while tying up your telephone line, and a nice lady's voice announced "You've Got Mail" when a new message arrived...

Copyright  1996 - 2026

All trademarks, copyrights, patents, and other rights of ownership to images and text used on the RF Cafe website are hereby acknowledged.

All trademarks, copyrights, patents, and other rights of ownership to images and text used on the RF Cafe website are hereby acknowledged.

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